The Extraordinary Impeachment Testimony of Fiona Hill
Beyond money, goods and services, there are more important reasons why the West will benefit from this rebalancing. The list of the world's top universities now includes 23 Chinese schools, up from nine in This is sure to rise sharply, with major universities in the Indian subcontinent, South America and Africa joining the list. That will give our children a far greater global choice of educational futures. But more important, Mr. Kenny notes, is "improvements in health and education and changing norms and values that suggest we're entering a healthier, more peaceful and more cosmopolitan time for the planet.
Religious intolerance has fallen in 90 per cent of countries, according to the World Values Study, going from 44 per cent to 33 per cent of the world's people in the past decade. Tolerance of homosexuals has risen similarly, homicide and war are both at their lowest levels in recorded history and population growth rates are plummeting worldwide — all the result of education, urbanization and prosperity.
How a TV Sitcom Triggered the Downfall of Western Civilization
This also the best plausible defence against climate change; studies have shown that its victims will overwhelmingly be those in absolute poverty, whose worldwide numbers have fallen in half in the past 20 years and could plausibly hit zero; the rebalancing will create a more climate-resistant world population. And countries with thriving economies will be able to afford climate remedies.
What about military decline? This could be crucial: Prosperous countries less prone to violence are less likely to require military intervention, so we'll be shifting to aid and diplomacy. It's already happening. What we in the West will lose is the ability to boast about Western supremacy.
We'll face the same challenges as now, and there will be headlines about defeat, but beneath it all, our lives are likely to be even better. This is a space where subscribers can engage with each other and Globe staff.
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In race Rasse haben there is nothing material but something cosmic and directional, the felt harmony of a Destiny, the single cadence of the march of historical Being. It is the incoordination of this wholly metaphysical beat which produces race hatred To Spengler, peoples are formed from early prototypes during the Early phase of a Culture.
Religion is in decline in the West, and America is no exception | USAPP
These shapes in which humanity is seized and moulded possess style and style-history no less than kinds of art or mode of thought. The people of Athens is a symbol not less than the Doric temple, the Englishman not less than modern physics. There are peoples of Apollinian, Magian, and Faustian cast World history is the history of the great Cultures, and peoples are but the symbolic forms and vessels in which the men of these Cultures fulfill their Destinies.
These ideas, which figure prominently in the second volume of the book, were common throughout German culture at the time, and would be the most significant elements for the National Socialists. In his later works, such as Man and Technics and The Hour of Decision , Spengler expanded upon his "spiritual" theory of race and tied it to his metaphysical notion of eternal war and his belief that "Man is a beast of prey".
The authorities however banned the book. Spengler differentiates between manifestations of religion that appear within a Civilization's developmental cycle.
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He sees each Culture as having an initial religious identity. This Religious concept arises out of the fundamental principle of the culture. Religions follow a trajectory that correlate with the trajectory of the Culture. The Religion eventually results in a reformation -like period, after the Culture-Ideal has reached its peak and fulfillment. Spengler views a reformation as representative of a declining factory. The reformation is followed by a period of rationalism , and finally entering a period of second religiousness that correlates with decline.
Intellectual creativeness of a Culture's Late period begins after the reformation, usually ushering in new freedoms in science. The scientific stage associated with post-reformation Puritanism contains the fundamentals of Rationalism. Eventually rationalism spreads throughout the Culture and becomes the dominant school of thought.
To Spengler, Culture is synonymous with religious creativeness. Every great Culture begins with a religious trend that arises in the countryside, is carried through to the cultural cities, and ends in materialism in the world-cities. Spengler described the process by which Enlightenment rationalism undermines and destroys itself, passing from unlimited optimism to unqualified skepticism. The Cartesian self-centered rationalism leads to schools of thought that do not cognize outside of their own constructed worlds, ignoring actual every-day life experience.
It applies criticism to its own artificial world until it exhausts itself in meaninglessness. In reaction to the educated elites, the masses give rise to the Second Religiousness, which manifests as deeply suspicious of academia and science. The Second Religiousness appears as a harbinger of the decline of mature Civilization into an ahistorical state.
The Second Religiousness occurs concurrently with Caesarism, the final political constitution of Late Civilization. Caesarism is the rise of an authoritarian ruler, a new 'emperor' akin to Caesar or Augustus, taking the reins in reaction to a decline in creativity, ideology and energy after a culture has reached its high point and become a civilization. The Second Religiousness is simply a rehashing of the original religious trend of the Culture. Spengler asserts that democracy is simply the political weapon of money , and the media are the means through which money operates a democratic political system.
Democracy and plutocracy are equivalent in Spengler's argument. The "tragic comedy of the world-improvers and freedom-teachers" is that they are simply assisting money to be more effective. The principles of equality , natural rights , universal suffrage , and freedom of the press are all disguises for class war the bourgeois against the aristocracy.
Freedom, to Spengler, is a negative concept, simply entailing the repudiation of any tradition. In reality, freedom of the press requires money, and entails ownership, thus serving money at the end. Suffrage involves electioneering , in which the donations rule the day. The ideologies espoused by candidates, whether Socialism or Liberalism , are set in motion by, and ultimately serve, only money. Spengler admits that in his era money has already won, in the form of democracy.
But in destroying the old elements of the Culture, it prepares the way for the rise of a new and overpowering figure: the Caesar. Before such a leader, money collapses, and in the Imperial Age the politics of money fades away. Spengler's analysis of democratic systems argues that even the use of one's own constitutional rights requires money, and that voting can only really work as designed in the absence of organized leadership working on the election process. As soon as the election process becomes organized by political leaders, to the extent that money allows, the vote ceases to be truly significant.
It is no more than a recorded opinion of the masses on the organizations of government over which they possess no positive influence whatsoever. Spengler notes that the greater the concentration of wealth in individuals, the more the fight for political power revolves around questions of money. One cannot even call this corruption or degeneracy, because this is in fact the necessary end of mature democratic systems.
On the subject of the press, Spengler is equally contemptuous. Instead of conversations between men, the press and the "electrical news-service keep the waking-consciousness of whole people and continents under a deafening drum-fire of theses, catchwords , standpoints, scenes, feelings, day by day and year by year. For the press to function, universal education is necessary. Along with schooling comes a demand for the shepherding of the masses, as an object of party politics.
Those that originally believed education to be solely for the enlightenment of each individual prepared the way for the power of the press, and eventually for the rise of the Caesar. There is no longer a need for leaders to impose military service , because the press will stir the public into a frenzy, clamor for weapons, and force their leaders into a conflict.
The only force which can counter money, in Spengler's estimation, is blood. As for Marx , his critique of capitalism is put forth in the same language and on the same assumptions as those of Adam Smith. His protest is more a recognition of capitalism's veracity, than a refutation. The only aim is to "confer upon objects the advantage of being subjects.
In , Theodor W. Adorno published an essay entitled "Spengler after the Downfall" in German : Spengler nach dem Untergang  to commemorate what would have been Spengler's 70th birthday. Adorno reassessed Spengler's thesis three decades after it had been put forth, in light of the catastrophic destruction of Nazi Germany although Spengler had not meant "Untergang" in a cataclysmic sense, this was how most authors after WWII interpreted it.mail.cmnv.org/11854-how-to-set.php
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As a member of the Frankfurt School of Marxist critical theory, Adorno's professed project in this essay was to "turn Spengler's reactionary ideas toward progressive ends. Adorno sees the rise of the Nazis as confirmation of Spengler's ideas about "Caesarism" and the triumph of force-politics over the market.
Adorno also draws parallels between Spengler's critique of Enlightenment and his own analysis of Enlightenment's self-destructive tendencies. However, Adorno also criticizes Spengler for an overly deterministic view of history, ignoring the unpredictable role that human initiative plays at all times. Adorno also criticizes Spengler's use of language, which overly relies on fetishistic terms like "Soul", "Blood" and "Destiny. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages.
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