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They were paid 6d per day, half the wage of a man-at-arms. Increasing the proportion of archers enabled Henry to raise a larger army. All men had to practise with the bow on Sundays, so there was a large pool to draw on.
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By most archers recruited for overseas expeditions were expected to be mounted whilst on campaign although, like the men-at-arms, they dismounted to fight in battle. Evidence suggests that archers would typically have one horse, men-at-arms more, and the nobility took large numbers of mounts with them.
Expertise in England was limited and therefore large numbers of gunners from overseas, mainly from the Low Countries, were recruited. These individuals were responsible for the construction, maintenance and repair of guns, as well as creating gunpowder from its component parts of saltpetre potassium nitrate , sulphur and charcoal.
Other artificers were also hired in , including masons, carpenters, forty smiths and sixty carters. These craftsmen also contributed to the artillery, by carving gunstones for ammunition, creating wooden structures known as mantlets to protect the guns, carrying out repairs and moving the equipment.
The intention to carry out sieges is also evidenced in the recruitment of a company of miners from the Forest of Dean.
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In this article, Dan analyses the composition of a medieval army. Peers, knights and men-at-arms Wages were determined by social status. Archers Archers formed the bulk of the soldiers recruited for the expedition to France. After reading this article, what are your thoughts and impressions? Get a taste of this course Find out what this course is like by previewing some of the course steps before you join:.
More courses you might like Learners who joined this course have also enjoyed these courses. University of Strathclyde. Discover the lives of textile industry workers during the Victorian era, and better understand Britain's industrial heritage. Whatever one makes of those ambitions, it's undeniable that the Saudis are violating international law as they carry out attacks with no apparent military target and use banned weapons, such as cluster bombs.
Aerial strikes have hit schools, hospitals, markets and homes. According to the U. It's relatively well known that the U.
Saudi Arabia has been on a global arms shopping spree and is now the world's largest purchaser of weapons. The brutal reality is that some of these bombs have landed on innocent Yemeni men, women and children. This is why many human rights and humanitarian organizations, as well as the European Parliament, have called for an embargo on arms sales to Saudi Arabia.
What remains unknown is the exact nature of the U. The U.
Bush announces military campaign
So what, exactly, does this targeting assistance looks like? Did it assist with the strike on the market? Did it help target the Doctors Without Borders medical clinic that the coalition struck repeatedly last October? What about the cluster bomb attack on Sanaa University in January?
One appropriate way for the Saudis — and the U. Member states of the U. Human Rights Council attempted to pursue just such an investigation, but the Saudi-U. So even as the U. President Obama has repeatedly connected the dots between the proliferation of violent extremism and abuses by the authoritarian, unaccountable governments of the Arab world. He has had less to say about the risks created to American citizens by U. But in this day and age, when it takes little training or equipment to wreak terrorist havoc in Western capitals, Obama should be very worried about the boomerang effect of such alliances.